Kazimir Malevich was a Russian painter, designer and pioneer of abstract art. Born in Kiev, he moved to Moscow in 1902 and in 1903 entered the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. In 1915 , he started to paint abstract and and published his manifesto, From Cubism to Suprematism. After the October Revolution in 1917, Malevich became a member of the Collegium on the Arts of Narkompros, the Commission for the Protection of Monuments and the Museums Commission. He taught at the Vitebsk Practical Art School, the Leningrad Academy of Arts, the Kiev State Art Institute and the House of the Arts in Leningrad. His book The World as Non-Objectivity was published in Munich in 1926 and translated into English in 1959. In 1923, Malevich was appointed director of the Petrograd State Institute of Artistic Culture. It was forced to close in 1926 when Stalin´s "Social Realism" was now the official style of the Soviets and a Communist party newspaper called it "a government-supported monastery" rife with "counterrevolutionary sermonizing and artistic debauchery". As a consequence, many of his works were confiscated and he was banned from creating and exhibiting similar art. At the invitation of Chagall, he moved to Vitebsk in 1919 to teach at the art school and create architectural models. He gave his first one-man exhibition in Moscow in late 1919 - early 1920. In 1922, he moved to Leningrad and joined the staff of the Institute for Aesthetic Culture. In 1927, he travelled to Warsaw and Berlin and visited the Bauhaus at Dessau. Malevich died in Leningrad on 15 May 1935. Nikolai Suetin, a friend of Malevich’s and a fellow artist, designed a white cube with a black square to mark the burial site. The memorial was destroyed during World War II. In 2013, an apartment block was built on the place of tomb and burial site of Kazimir Malevich. Another nearby monument to Malevich, put up in 1988, is now also on the grounds of a gated community.
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