Rudolf Belling
& collect
Rudolf Belling was sculptor, designer, architect and stage designer. In 1908, he founded a studio for sculpture and got orders for theater productions by Max Reinhardt. The theater was an important catalyst for his later work and his understanding of art across genres. From 1910 he worked in a stage workshop and got to know the expressionist chief stage designer of Max Reinhardt, Ernst Stern, through whom he came into contact with expressionist art and literature. In addition to theatre, also dance influenced the development of his sculptural work. In 1919 he created his famous work "Dreiklang".

He also worked as a character designer for film productions such as Paul Wegener´s iconic movie "Golem". After the end of WWI, which he survived as a soldier, the Weimar Republic was proclaimed in Germany. Rudolf Belling became a member of the newly founded "Arbeitsrat für Kunst" and co-founded the progressive "Novembergruppe", whose members included Max Pechstein and the architects Erich Mendelssohn and Bruno Taut. He sought a synthesis of art and design, integrating the styles of naturalism, expressionism, cubism, constructivism, futurism, new objectivity and abstraction. In 1921 he was commissioned to design costumes and the set design for the skating ballet "Futurist Carnival" in Berlin.

Rudolf Belling was an universal artist who saw no contradiction between visual, performing and applied art. With this view of the world, he was closer to the Renaissance artists than to the avant-gardists of the fragmented classical modern age with its ideological dogmas. One of his achievements as a designer were his stylized faceless fashion mannequins, which he patented in 1921. They replaced the then widespread naturalistic modeled dolls made of wax and are considered the prototype of the modern mannequin. The reduced formal idiom of Belling´s fashion sculptures, as he called them, already hinted at the emerging aesthetics of Art Déco; they not only stood in the KaDeWe department store in Berlin, but were also exported to France and the USA.

Belling's "Triad" was the first cubist abstract sculpture in Germany and, in addition to futuristic and constructivist design principles, was influenced by Alexander Archipenko, a friend of Belling. Belling's vision was to create a total work of art that combined painting, sculpture, architecture, dance and music. The triad is a structure with three arms or figures arranged in a triangle, similar to the mythological motif of the three Graces, which rise like flames and turn towards each other. The key innovation of the Triad was that it was designed as a multi-faceted sculpture that changes with the viewer´s perspective. Matter and its surrounding space, or positive and negative forms, were considered by Belling as equivalent; the design of the empty space became the hallmark of his sculptures. "When I make a sculpture, I organize the forms and let them grow like a tree, or a human", Belling explained. In 1924, Ludwig Justi, the director of the National gallery, dedicated a solo exhibition to Belling in the Kronprinzenpalais.

In the 1920s, Belling turned to the topic of man and technology and receoved numerous design orders industry. For the inauguration of the AVUS route in 1921, he designed a seven meter high advertising plastic for the tire manufacturer Pneumatik Harburg-Wien. In 1923 he designed a radiator figure for the car brand Horch (now Audi), the Horchtier. The body of the fabulous creature picks up on elements from the automobile design, the wide-open ears are a visual implementation of the brand name. However, due to the restructuring and renaming of Horch in Audi, the figure did not go into industrial production.

One of Rudolf Belling´s most important works is the Head of Brass, made 1925. The feminine portrait radiates anticipates the aesthetics of the machine age and of Art Deco. With his android-like, sharply cut facial features, the head in brass could be considered as the direct forerunner of the robot Maria in Fritz Lang´s classic movie Metropolis; the droid C3PO in George Lucas´ Star Wars might also be inspired by this sculpture.

When the Scala Theater in Berlin was converted into an ice and dance palace in 1920, Belling was commissioned to design the interiors together with architect Walter Würzbach. He designed the interior for a dance casino and a wine bar, where he combined sculptural and architectural elements into a spatial synthesis of the arts. An illuminated fountain of crystalline shapes was the highlight of the interior. In 1923, in collaboration with architect Gellhorn and engineer Knauthe, Belling designed a gas station. For a modern villa in the Westend in Berlin, built under the architectural direction of Arthur Korn, Richard Neutra designed the garden and Rudolf Belling a movable fountain sculpture, followed in 1924 by a water feature for the conservatory. Belling used moving spirals interacting with flowing water, making him a forerunner of kinetic art. When the Nazis took over in 1933, the owner of the villa, Ismar Goldstein, was expropriated. After WWII, the building was demolished. Belling also produced portrait sculptures for his gallery owner Alfred Flechtheim and for Joseph von Sternberg. Film director Joseph von Sternberg was portrayed by Belling in 1930, when he came to Germany from the USA to search for a leading actress for his film "The Blue Angel". Belling accompanied Sternberg in his search, and the choice finally fell on Marlene Dietrich, who subsequently gained international fame.

In 1931, Belling was appointed member of the Academy of Arts in Berlin. At that time, the global political situation deteriorated as a result of the collapse of the New York Stock Exchange in 1929 and the resulting global economic crisis. The rise of fascism in Europe and the advance of the Nazis in Germany ended the era of avant-garde and modernity. After Hitler came to power, Rudolf Belling was increasingly boycotted, a professorship was denied, and he resigned from the Academy of Arts. He spent the year 1935 on a teaching assignment in New York. When he returned in 1936, he was forced to leave Germany and go into exile.

Through the help of architect Hans Poelzig, Belling received a teaching assignment in Istanbul. He had to leave behind his Berlin studio and numerous works. In 1937, when the Nazis presented their defamatory propaganda show "Entartete Kunst" in Munich, Belling was represented by two works, the Triad and the Head of Brass. The day before, the "Great German Art Exhibition" was opened in the newly built "Haus der Kunst", a showcase of Nazi petty-bourgeois aesthetics. Paradoxically, Rudolf Belling was also represented there, with a 1929 bronze figure of the boxer Max Schmeling. The press was banned from reporting the matter, but the audience noticed Belling's presence in both exhibitions. His works were withdrawn from the Degenerate Art Exhibition, while his naturalistic sculpture of Max Schmeling remained in the Haus der Kunst. At that time, Belling was already in exile in Turkey. Secular Turkey under Kemal Atatürk was then a cosmopolitan country where the education system was about to be modernized. Since there was no tradition of figurative sculpture, Belling began teaching sculpture and received several commissions, including in 1943 a statue of the new president Ismet Inönü.

In 1944, Belling's house and studio in Berlin-Lichterfelde were bombed out and numerous designs were destroyed. After the end of the Second World War, Rudolf Belling returned to abstraction, the problem of form in space, spatial dynamics and empty space as a formative element. In 1949 he created the abstract sculpture "49" in memory of the Triad, which he believed was destroyed. However, it had survived the bombing and returned to Berlin National Gallery. Belling remained in Turkey until 1966. He returned to Germany at the age of 80.

After the war, Rudolf Belling´s return to abstraction and his triumph over the cultural policies of the Nazis in the Degenerate Art Exhibition were of little use to him. His naturalistic Max Schmeling sculpture, exhibited by the Nazis, made him suspect, and his pioneering achievements in abstract sculpture were forgotten. His last work for the public space was a symbol of peace, which he created on the occasion of the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich. The six-meter-high sculpture was originally intended to be at the top of the heap of war mines, but after a local political dispute, the bronze sculpture was set up in a tree-covered hollow. Belling could not experience the inauguration of his last sculpture. He died in 1972, at the age of 85 years.
share Rudolf Belling
penccil.com/gallery.php?show=13643
  Inspirations.  
Hybrid urban scooter
A low-cost hybrid urban scooter for developing countries running either on electric battery or on bi...
Omnidirectional Speaker
Sculptural ominidirectional speakers, projecting sound recorded from an omnidirectional microphone i...
Multifunctional tableware
Inspired by the culture, cuisine and hospitality of the ancient silk road, this ceramics series cons...
An organic structure for bikes
A sports bike for urban and mountain environments. The aluminium frame provides for increased stabil...
Stories of You
REVOIR is an interactive mirror, activated by emotion detection to create stories through visual lan...
S tables
modul for table
The shape of clouds
"Outside, the land stretches, empty, to the horizon; the sky opens, with speeding clouds. In the sha...
One Hundred Thousand Games
One Hundred Thousand Games is an online game with unlimited levels. It takes the genre of first-per...
Jerszy Seymour Amateurtopia
Berlin born and –based designer Jerszy Seymour studied engineering at South Bank Polytechnic 1987 ...
Art Driver
A obstacle driving computer game with visual art. Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to push obsta...
Emotibots
Emotibots are shape-shifting social home robots interacting with humans. Robots will in the future i...
Black Box. A Cabinet of Robotic Curiosities
The Vitra Campus has a new exhibition space: in one of the houses at the southern entrance, a Black ...
Breathe
The determined breaths of a glassblower are seldom included in the finished product of their labour,...
City Garden II ´Spaces´
Family garden for 5: spacy rooms
Charles Tassin
Interior designer Charles Tassin has developed a very personal approach to decoration. Merging the s...
penccil: This was 2017
The penccil year in review is a project selection for 2017, this year curated by Mario Gagliardi. Se...
Cutting the edges
Arctic Paper launches new swatch books for the brands Arctic, Amber and G-Print, as well as the two ...
serpentine 2017
exhibition, schauspiel köln, cologne. steelobjects, ceramic reliefs.
BS1
temporary accessible sculpture.
Functional Pasta
Pasta based on the geometry of a Möbius strip, a geometric surface with the distinction of having o...
We Ar
University of Sunderland MA Glass and Ceramics Show
Coffee maker
Visualization of the process of coffee making. The aim was not to use words.
Mapping Reality
During a walk through Berlin Moabit I sketched my perception of the surrounding streets. The result ...
TYPOGRAPHY
RESEARCH
UNTITLED PROJECT: CABIN [THOREAU]
UNTITLED PROJECT: CABIN [THOREAU] [ANGLET], 2016 –– a carved and painted replica of Henry David ...
Untitled Project: Honda CB77 Superhawk
UNTITLED PROJECT: HONDA CB77 SUPER HAWK, oil paint on carved wood, 2013-2014 –– A carved/painted...
Green Architecture…. Is it blessing or curse!!
GREEN ARCHITECTURE….IT IS GOOD FOR THE NATURAL WORLD OR MAYBE IT WILL BE A MESS OF THE TREES AND P...
Vico Magistretti
Vico Magistretti (1920 - 2006) studied in Lausanne and Milano. He was one of the main protagonists o...
Franz Kline
Around 1950, Franz Kline radically simplified painting: “Instead of making a sign you can read, yo...
Glowscape
Study for a LED light installation. LED diodes are installed on a net of wires and placed over the l...
Structured Reflection
These 3D-printed vases feature finely faceted surface structures which create intriguing light refle...
Watch UX
A UX study for a smart watch with a digital interface from 2004. (C) Mario Gagliardi
Gaetano Pesce: Abstraction is boring
"Abstraction is boring and limited as a mode of expression. Reducing and reducing designs means that...
Jeff Zimmerman
Jeff Zimmermann is a Chicago based artist. Born in Kentucky, Zimmerman spent his childhood among nat...
klub katarakt 12
klub katarakt, the festival for experimental music, takes place for the twelfth time at Kampnagel, H...
New Generation
Experiemntal art
Home Patterns
“Home Patterns” is a new series of patterns by Longstory, designed for printing on textiles, wal...
Organic Public
Contemporary cities are in need of public spaces which work better for their citizens. This proposal...
What Is A Simulation?
What is a simulation? It is a private game we devise when the aliveness of a situation is too comple...
Michael Schoner
Michael Schoner develops 3D and 2D designs in different scales varying from architecture and interio...
Design for Disaster
"A disaster zone where everything is lost offers the perfect opportunity for us to take a fresh look...
The art of improvising art
The recently abandoned administrative headquarters of Austrian Post, an imposing turn of the century...
Memphis Posters
4 posters by the legendary Italian design collective Memphis Milano.
A Flat Named Desire
An inspirational collection of interior objects.
Just Before Paradise
“And just as we learn about our lives from others, so, too, do we let others shape our understandi...
Kippenberger
Martin Kippenberger (born 1953 in Dortmund, died 1997 in Vienna) is one of the foremost and simultan...
Expression/Information
Painting is seen as a form of practice that—contrary to canonical accounts—in no way shies away ...
Total Automation
In The Promise of Total Automation, artists examine technology in its complexity. They point out our...
German Art since 1960
German ‘paragons of painting’ such as Georg Baselitz, Jörg Immendorff and Markus Lüpertz have ...
Jean Lurçat
Jean Lurcat, painter, poet and ceramicist, great renovator of contemporary French tapestry, produced...
A Summer For The Modernists
"Today every city, town, or village is affected by it. We have entered the Neon Civilization and bec...
Joe Colombo: Total Furnishing Unit
The Total furnishing unit: Bathroom by Joe Colombo, Milano 1971.
Pillars
Consisting of connected bricks whose relative position can be altered by changing underlying paramet...
Scum Pixel
'Scum' refers to a foamy layer or mass that forms on the surface of liquid when it is boiled or ferm...
Inspiration
Things which inspire me https://soundcloud.com/myrne/architect https://vimeo.com/173541384
Carlo Scarpa: Sketch and Work
There is hardly another architect of the 20th century in whose work the progression from sketch to c...
The Bauhaus Revolution
The Bauhaus was the most influential design school of the 20th century. See more in the new magazin...
In Infinity
Yayoi Kusama’s unique imagery spring from the recurring hallucinations that have haunted her since...
In Orbit
"When I look at these complex layers of translucent lines and spheres, I am reminded of models of th...
Sislej Xhafa
Sislej Xhafa has furnished the waiting room of a police station in Gent like a grand palace. He pres...
also:
Spring 2020 - Project 2 - MassArt
A school project in which we had to redesign a small triangle shape park near Harvard Square in Camb...
Architectural sculptures
Architectural sculptures by K. Kegelmann as part of "Future City" curated by Mario Gagliardi at the ...
Objects of Desire
»Surrealism and Design 1924 – Today« 28.09.2019 – 19.01.2020 at Vitra Design Museum Surrealis...
Chromaglass
Chromaglass is a cocktail glass displaying its ingredients through colors. An inner insulating conta...
Francesco Vezzoli: Antique not Antique
Francesco Vezzoli at MUSEO MUSEION.
Surrealism
Inspired by Surrealism and some of the artists of that time (such as Dali or Ernst), I created basic...
Nature morte/Nature vivante
Until recently, artists, designers and architects were used to working with inert, non-living materi...
HYFY
HYFY is a project to rethink the functions, structures and formal expressions of audio hardware.
Upcycled
Furniture design from upcycled materials: Stools from old rubber tyres, oil barrels and washing mach...
chair_ONE
chair_ONE is the best known design by Konstantin Grcic, a German furniture designer whose work is eq...
Cazal
Glasses by German manufacturer Cazal were considered a sought-after accessory in New York's hip-hop ...
Arte generativo
Ejemplos de arte generativo que sirvan de inspiración
Reactive Space
Inspired by Plato´s allegory of the cave, this is an architectural study for spaces reacting to its...
Omnidirectional microphone
Design for an omnidirectional microphone, recording sound from all spatial directions. Recorded soun...
Calatrava : Sculptures
Sculptures by architect Santiago Calatrava.
Streampal
Streampal is a lifestream robot for Youtubers, Instagrammers and others who want to record passages ...
CoBrA Magazines
The avant-garde art collective CoBrA (Copenhagen, Brussels and Amsterdam) existed from 1949 to 1951....
The e-scooter Boom
The German Ministry of Transport announced that it will legalize e-scooters as road vehicles. All Ge...
Jonathan Ive leaves Apple
On June 28, Apple´s chief designer Jonathan Ive (born 1967) announced that he would leave Apple lat...
Abstract Form
Click 4 times on the canvas and watch how an abstract form is generated: https://www.mariogagliardi....
Essential Water
In many regions of the planet, water is increasingly becoming rare. Our understanding of water, refl...
The Venice Pavillon
The Venice Pavillon interprets the history of Venice as a point of contact between West and East. Sh...
Generative Botany
An early app for generative graphics, realized in 2000 in the (now deprecated) Adobe Flash. To use t...
Creative Changemakers & Future City
Promotional sites for the initiative Creative Changemakers and the event Future City. (C) 2018 MGD M...
The Persona Project
Social media are powerful because humans use the same parts of the brain to interact with machines a...
Blacker Box
Blacker Box is a design expression for an Intelligent Speaker. (C) Mario Gagliardi Design 2017
Stories of the Future
A generator for news headlines of the future. Every 9 seconds, a new story is generated: http://mar...
Alessandro Mendini 1931-2019
For Alchimia, design is a cyle: everything that will have to happen has already happened, and the im...
VAW
In late 2018, we proposed a strategic repositioning of Vienna Art Week. We suggested a fundamental...
Pieter Bruegel
During his lifetime, Pieter Bruegel the Elder was already among the period’s most sought-after art...
Typography
Collection of beautiful typography and graphic design.
Digital Biology
Interior studies for public indoor spaces merging digital and biological environments. Wall modules ...
Podchain
Podchain is an integrated design concept for on-demand autonomous transport. To optimize kinetic ene...
Territorium: Ars - Techne-Krafts-Cosmovisión
Colección de imágenes que soportan investigación a nivel de postgrado: Maestría Estudios Territ...
Fashion, Food, Transport
FUTURE CITY premiered at Vienna Art Week 2018 on November 20, 2018, at MAK Museum of Applied Arts in...
Writing & Design
Artists Abroad: A Woman´s Journey to Discover the Artists. Writer and Illustrator.
WRECK--Regeneration Experiment of Wasted Daily-use Ceramics from Chaozhou, China
WRECK, the destruction of decorum, the ruin of culture. BENTU went deep into daily-use ceramics indu...
Time
How do you express time without numbers or watch hands? Clocks abstract time into a measurable, un...
The loft bar
Concept project of loft bar.
Low cost urban transport
Combining contemporary technology with a focus on low cost and reliability, this neighborhood transp...