Born in the Netherlands in 1928, Wim Crouwel trained at the Art Academy Minerva (1946–49) and after completing his military service, started his professional life as an abstract painter. He studied at the Amsterdam Art Academy (1952–53) and during that time joined an exhibition design firm (1952), where he gained his first experience of the possibilities of graphic design. Inspired by Swiss design, in 1954 he stopped painting and sought work as a freelance designer in Amsterdam. During the 1950s, Crouwel traveled to Switzerland, meeting with other designers and witnessing the emerging International Style. An avid proponent of international debate, he became the first general secretary of the International Council of Graphic Design Associations (Icograda) in 1963. In the same year, Crouwel, product designer Friso Kramer, and architect and graphic designer Benno Wissing, together with Paul and Dick Schwarz, founded Total Design, the Netherlands´ first multidisciplinary design studio, which was to become a dominant force in Dutch design. Through their work, Crouwel and his colleagues had significant influence on the national and cultural identity of the Netherlands. Crouwel’s portfolio ranges from postage stamps for the Dutch Post Office (1968) to an extensive body of work for the Stedelijk Museum (1964–85)—all testimony to his achievements in the refinement and application of the grid. Crouwel is also especially recognized for his innovative systematic approach to design thinking. In 1967, as a response to early digital typesetting, he designed the experimental typeface New Alphabet (in the permanent collection of The Museum of Modern Art, New York), devising a matrix within which letterforms were constructed as units on a grid. In 1972, Crouwel became a part-time professor at Delft Technical University (TU Delft), and in 1980 he left Total Design when he was appointed a full-time professor at TU. In 1985 he was named Director of the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen in Rotterdam. He consolidated his longtime commitment to education in assuming the Private Chair at Erasmus University, Rotterdam (1987–93). Wim Crouwel holds a number of honorary positions, including Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (OBE); Knight of the Order of the Dutch Lion; Honorary Royal Designer for Industry, UK; Honorary Fellow of the Society of Typographic Designers, UK; and Honorary Member of the Deutsche Werkbund. His work, which has received many European design awards, has been exhibited internationally.